[单选,材料题] All of the following might have contributed to globalization except__________．
The Diminishing Scientific Leadership of the U, S.With the rapid globalization of science itself ( more than 40 percent of scientific Ph.D. students trained in the United States are now foreign nationals, roughly half of whom return to their countries of origin ) , the once undisputed U.S.scientific lead, whether relevant to product lead or not, is diminishing.
The competition of foreign students for positions in U.S.graduate schools has also contributed to making scientific training relatively unattractive to U.S.students, because the rapidly increasing supply of students has diminished the relative rewards of this career path. For the best and brightest from low-income countries, a position as a research assistant in the United States is attractive, whereas the best and brightest U.S.students might now see better options in other fields. Science and engineering careers, to the extent that they are opening up to foreign competition ( whether imported or available through better communication ) , also seem to be becoming relatively less attractive to U.S. students.
With respect to the role of universities in the innovation process the speculative boom of the 1990s( which, among other things, made it possible to convert scientific findings into cash rather quickly ) was largely unexpected.The boom brought universities and their faculties into much closer contact with private markets as they tried to gain as much of the economic dividends from their discoveries as possible. For a while,the path between discoveries in basic science and new flows of hard cash was considerably shortened. But during the next few decades, this path will likely revert toward its more traditional length and reestablish in a healthy way, the more traditional ( and more independent ) relationship between the basic research done at universities and those entities that translate ideas into products and services.
In the intervening years, another new force also greatly facilitated globalization: the rapid growth of the Internet and cheap wide-bandwidth international communication. Today, complex design activities can take place in locations quite removed from manufacturing, other business functions and the consumer. Indeed, there is now ample opportunity for real-time communication between business functions that are quite independent of their specific locations. For example, software are development, with all its changes and complications, can to a considerable extent be done overseas for a U.S.customer.Foreign call centers can respond instantly to questions from thousands of miles away.The result is that low-wage workers in the Far East and in some other countries are coming into even more direct competition with a much wider spectrum of U.S. labor: unskilled in the case of call centers; more highly skilled in the case of programmers.
A . the unprecedented development of Intemet
B . the closer contact of universities with private markets
C . real time communication between business functions
D . the prevalence of wide bandwidth international communication
【解析】第四段第一句说“…another new force also greatly facilitated globalization…”A，C，D选项都是该段提到的“another new force”的具体实例，只有B项未曾提到。